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Citations & Plagiarism: APA, MLA, and more

Use this guide to learn how to format your work in APA, MLA, and Chicago style, and to avoid plagiarism.

How to cite Chicago Style

The Chicago Manual of Style is used by some social science publications, in most historical journals, and by many academic and trade publishers. Chicago describes two basic methods for documentation:

  • The notes and bibliography system presents citation information in footnotes and/or endnotes and a bibliography. This style is often used in the humanities, including literature, history, and the arts.
  • The author-date system presents a brief in-text citation of the sourceusually the author's name and date of publication in parentheses—with a full bibliography at the end. This style is more commonly used in the physical, natural, and social sciences.

 

Chicago Style Citation Quick Guide

Visit the Chicago Manual of Style Quick Guide to learn about the style's different citation systems. You can also go directly to the Notes & Bibliography section or the Author-Date section if you already know which style you need to use. The guide has sample citations as well as explanations of how to format your work.

Chicago Manual of Style

Author-Date sample citations

Author Date Style

For the author-date system, each example of a reference list entry is accompanied by an example of a corresponding in-text citation. Below are a few examples of citations in the author-date style taken from the CMOS website. You can find more at the CMOS Author-Date page. For more details and many more examples, see chapter 15 of The Chicago Manual of Style.

 

Book

Reference list entry

Smith, Zadie. 2016. Swing Time. New York: Penguin Press.

In-text citation

(Smith 2016, 315–16)

 

E-book

Include a URL, the name of the database, or the ebook format in the reference list.  You can put page numbers, chapter, or section title for the in-text citation if there is one.

Reference list entries (in alphabetical order)

Austen, Jane. 2007. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics. Kindle.

Melville, Herman. 1851. Moby-Dick; or, The Whale. New York: Harper & Brothers. http://mel.hofstra.edu/moby-dick-the-whale-proofs.html.

In-text citations

(Austen 2007, chap. 3)

(Melville 1851, 627)

 

Journal article

In the reference list, include the page range for the whole article within the journal. For the in-text citation, cite the specific page numbers you are referencing. For articles consulted online, include the DOI, or the name of the database, or the URL. For journal articles with four or more authors, list the first followed by et al. in the note, and list up to ten in the bibliography. For more than ten authors, list only the first seven in the bibliography, followed by et al.

Reference list entries (in alphabetical order)

Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. 2017. “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality.” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring): 1–34. https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.

LaSalle, Peter. 2017. “Conundrum: A Story about Reading.” New England Review 38 (1): 95–109. Project MUSE.

Satterfield, Susan. 2016. “Livy and the Pax Deum.” Classical Philology 111, no. 2 (April): 165–76.

In-text citations

(Keng, Lin, and Orazem 2017, 9–10)

(LaSalle 2017, 95)

(Satterfield 2016, 170)

Notes & Bibliography sample citations

Notes and Bibliography Style

Below are a few examples of citations in the Notes and Bibliography style taken from the CMOS website. If you are citing the same source more than once, use the shortened note after the first time you use the regular note.

You can find more examples at the CMOS Notes Bibliography page. For more details and many more examples, see chapter 14 of The Chicago Manual of Style.

 

Book

Note

1. Zadie Smith, Swing Time (New York: Penguin Press, 2016), 315–16.
Shortened note

2. Smith, Swing Time, 320.
Bibliography entry

Smith, Zadie. Swing Time. New York: Penguin Press, 2016.

 

E-book

Include a URL, the name of the database, or the ebook format in the note and bibliography. For notes, include page numbers if they are available. If not, you can also use a section title or a chapter. If not, leave it out.
Notes

1. Herman Melville, Moby-Dick; or, The Whale (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1851), 627, http://mel.hofstra.edu/moby-dick-the-whale-proofs.html.

2. Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice (New York: Penguin Classics, 2007), chap. 3, Kindle.

Shortened notes

3. Melville, Moby-Dick, 722–23.

4. Austen, Pride and Prejudice, chap. 14.

Bibliography entries (in alphabetical order)

Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics, 2007. Kindle.

Melville, Herman. Moby-Dick; or, The Whale. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1851. http://mel.hofstra.edu/moby-dick-the-whale-proofs.html.

 

Journal article

In a note, cite the specific page numbers you are referencing. In the bibliography, include the page range for the whole article within the journal. For articles consulted online, include the DOI, or the name of the database, or the URL. For journal articles with four or more authors, list the first followed by et al. in the note, and list up to ten in the bibliography. For more than ten authors, list only the first seven in the bibliography, followed by et al.
Notes

1. Susan Satterfield, “Livy and the Pax Deum,” Classical Philology 111, no. 2 (April 2016): 170.

2. Shao-Hsun Keng, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem, “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality,” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 9–10, https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.

3. Peter LaSalle, “Conundrum: A Story about Reading,” New England Review 38, no. 1 (2017): 95, Project MUSE.
Shortened notes

4. Satterfield, “Livy,” 172–73.

5. Keng, Lin, and Orazem, “Expanding College Access,” 23.

6. LaSalle, “Conundrum,” 101.
Bibliography entries (in alphabetical order)

Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality.” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 1–34. https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.

LaSalle, Peter. “Conundrum: A Story about Reading.” New England Review 38, no. 1 (2017): 95–109. Project MUSE.

Satterfield, Susan. “Livy and the Pax Deum.” Classical Philology 111, no. 2 (April 2016): 165–76.

More Chicago Style resources

Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) Chicago Style Guide

The OWL Chicago style guide offers excellent resources for information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. This resource follows the 17th edition.

Examples of how to cite:

Sample Papers

A note on Turabian Style

Turabian Style

The Turabian citation guide presents information on citation and formatting in Turabian style, which is essentially the same as the 17th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, with slight modifications for the needs of student writers.

Turabian Tip Sheet

Official Chicago style, in easy-to-use, printable PDF paper-writing tip sheets for students, teachers, and librarians. Guidelines come from Kate L. Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (9th ed.) and are fully compatible with The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.).

Citation tools

Citation Generating Tools

These resources can help you format your bibliographies and references:

  • Citation Builderautomatically generates citations for print or online sources in MLA, APA, and Chicago
  • KnightCiteanother citation generator for MLA, APA, and Chicao
  • NoodleTools online research management platform
  • ZoteroBib — use a URL, ISBN, DOI, PMID, arXiv ID, or title and get a full citation! 
  • EndNote Basic — the basic, web browser version is free to use

Most of the citations tools are updated regularly, but you can always explore the rest of citations research guide for more information on commonly-used styles.